Duxbury Braille Charts Available to Download



All of these braille charts are meant for Summary Reference Only. This means that the charts do not even begin to tell the  whole story. For example, braille contractions largely follow pronunciation. The th contraction is used in think, but not in  pothole. Its use in pothole would suggest to a braille reader that the th sound is found in pothole. Words starting with  “be”, “ded”, “den”, and “der” are especially tricky. It is precisely for this reason that braille production software and braille transcribers are so useful: these rules are very subtle and difficult to master.

Any person producing  quality braille to meet contract standards should consult experts and not this or any other braille chart.


These charts try to convey as much of the braille rules as possible, while still being relatively simple. All single word  contractions which are represented in braille as a single letter (and a few other contractions) in braille are underlined.  That means that in order to be contracted in braille, these words must be isolated from other words. You cannot use the “can”  contraction in “Duncan”.

The little house symbol is used in several different ways in these tables to reflect different rules  and situations. The house symbol shows other text. This symbol is used to show which contractions can be used only  in the beginning, middle, or end of a word. Looking at the  BANA table, you can see that a “dropped d” in braille means “dis”, “dd” or a period depending on whether it is in the  beginning, middle, or end of a braille word. The double house symbol adjacent to punctuation marks stands for text, making it possible to show the opening and closing parenthesis in a single entry. The double house symbol is also used to show how  the space before the following braille word is removed after the words “by”, “into”, and “to”.

British Braille Chart


Image of the BAUK braille chart, reduced to a resolution of about 400x600. This image is not intended for printing

PDF image for printing (best if printed on A3 paper)

BAUK stands for Braille Authority of the United Kingdom. BAUK Braille is used in the United Kingdom.  It is also used as the braille standard for many nations when they want to write English Braille. This is especially true for the Commonwealth  Nations, and for many African nations.

The contractions of BAUK braille are the same as those for BANA braille as they appear on these charts. However, the contraction rules are used in a different way. In BANA braille, a half syllable boundary is enough to prevent a contraction. In BAUK braille, these contractions are used. For example the “ed” contraction is not used in “edition” in BANA braille, but it is used in BAUK braille.

On the charts, there are differences in the punctuation and the composition signs. There are also differences in terminology. While Americans call it a period, people in England call it a full stop.

UEB Braille Chart


PDF image for printing (best if printed on 11×17 inch paper)

UEB stands for Unified English Braille, which is a project of  the International Council on English Braille.

At the time of this writing, UEB has been adopted by Australia, New Zealand, Nigeria, South Africa, UK and USA

UEB braille is designed to remove braille ambiguities, and to be closer to the underlying ink print. Nine contractions of BANA and BAUK braille are eliminated: ally, ation, ble, by, com, dd, into, o’clock, and to. Many of the uses of these contraction rules have changed from BANA  and/or BAUK braille. The punctuation and composition signs are revamped almost entirely. This symbols list was especially useful in preparing the chart.